Pula, a town and port in the south-western part of Istria; population 62,378. Situated in the inner part of a bay, divided by the islands of St. Catherine, St. Andrew and Uljanik into three port basins. According to the size of the con-structed coast and level of equipment, Pula is the most important and biggest port in Istria, and the well-protected Pula Bay places it among the best natural harbours on the Adriatic. Due to its size, exposed location, two accesses (the one directly from the sea and the other through the Fazana Strait), low coastline and easy construction of fortification systems, provided the Pula Bay a special strategic importance. The landscape of Pula includes low and open relief largely covered by red soil. The original forests of oak have been reduced to low shrubs; the surroundings of Pula was reafforested with pine. The average air temperature in January reaches 5 °C and in July 23.2 °C; the average annual rainfall attains around 800 mm. In winter, the bora and the sirocco blow; the bora is sometimes extremely strong, and blows in the outer port. Pula is the economic centre with developed shipbuilding industry (Uljanik), textiles, metal industry and building trades as well as glass manufacturing. Tourist centre (marina). The importance of Pula as a traffic intersection in the whole Istria has particularly increased by the modernization of the airport. Situated on the main road (M2, E751), and connected with Divaca by a railroad. The first tourist excursions to Pula were recorded at the beginning of the 19th century. Giovanni Carrara, a conservator of antiquities in Pula, guided the sightseeing tours for distinguished personalities and organized groups in 1828. In 1832 Pula was visited by the Austrian emperor Ferdinand I. The first tourist guide on Pula (Cenni al forestiero che visita Pola - Tips for a Foreigner Visiting Pula), published by the Austrian Lloyd from Trieste, compiled by Pietro Kandler, was printed in 1845. The first public beach, Bagno Polese, for the citizens and tourists, located between the islet of Ulja-nik and the administration building on the coastal promenade, was opened in 1885. After that, two other beaches were constructed, ŤSakordanať and the marine officers' beach on the islet of St. Peter, where men and women could swim at different times of the day. During the First World War the Zelenika beach was opened, and in 1936 the Stoja beach (Stabilimento bagni di Stoia). The first modern hotel in Pula - Hotel Riviera - was opened in 1908. Under the Italian rule, the hotels Miramare, Bologna, Milano and Centrale were operating as well as the children's summer camps Principe di Piemonte on Stoja and Sandro Mussolini on Vargarola. In the 1930s Pula had several travel agencies. Tourism in Pula experiences its peak in the 1960s, when on the beautiful, well-indented and green coast south of Pula the construction of modern tourist resorts was initiated (Zlatne Stijene, Ribarska Koliba, Verudela). Today Pula offers a variety of excellent opportunities for tourists. Together with well-equipped hotels and other types of accommodation facilities, the tourist offer includes many sports grounds, recreational facilities and entertainment programs, terraces with live music, discotheques, casinos, inns and restaurants, as well as diverse excursions. The town disposes of two marinas, so that yachting tourism is increasingly developing. Pula is also a well-known congress centre (the large congress hall in Hotel Histria). The town can be reached by various means of transport, and there is an airport in the immediate vicinity of Pula (6 km), constructed to meet the requirements of international air traffic. Events: the Croatian Film Festival has been organized traditionally every year since 1954 in Arena (July), the Pop Music Festival ŤArenať is also held in Arena (July), Art & Music Festival - the rock music festival (in August). Pula is also a centre of sport tourism because domestic and international sports teams and athlets find the favourable climate, quality sports facilities (tennis courts, sports halls, football stadiums, football fields, track-and-field courses, indoor and outdoor swimming pools, water sports facilities, etc.) suitable for winter training season. Apart from the traditional sports on the ground, there are opportunities to enjoy a variety of water sports. Pula ACI Marina has 294 berths in the sea and 100 places on the land, provided for the vessels of a length between 6 and 18 m; Veruda Marina has 610 berths in the sea and 150 places on the land; vessel length between 6 and 15 m.